Assessment tools for screening and clinical evaluation of psychosocial aspects in addictive disorders PMC

The larger societal structure either restricts or enhances interactions between agents in a social system (Bunge 1997). Programs that do not have a plan for creating a culture of recovery among clients risk their clients returning to the drug culture or holding on to elements of that culture because it meets their basic and social needs. In the worst-case Sober House scenario, clients will recreate a drug culture among themselves within the program. In the best case, staff members will have a plan for creating a culture of recovery within their treatment population. They’ve shown that addiction is a long-lasting and complex brain disease, and that current treatments can help people control their addictions.

A Comprehensive Understanding of SUD and Recovery

All these areas contribute to the Psychological Dimension and what motivates the reward system. In this paper we use the term “substance use disorder” or “addiction” to refer to both the complex nature of severe substance dependence and substance abuse. Advances in addiction research are increasingly being applied to gain deeper knowledge about the impact of drug use on brain structure and functioning, capacity, autonomy, free choice and decision-making, behaviour, treatment, and symptom reduction. While research of this kind raises important issues about identity, and notions of health and illness, the outcomes have implications for drug policy, health care systems and delivery, and treatment for substance use problems. While making a decision is itself a mental act, a mental act or event does not cause behaviour alone, but is one part of the complex process between neuronal firing and action.

a biopsychosocial approach to substance abuse

About this article

One of the most significant contributions to the assessment and treatment of addictions is the bio-psycho-social (BPS) model. This holistic concept allows us to consider a range of factors that influence the development and maintenance of addictive behavior. Ethics approval was obtained from the relevant university committee (DUHREC_EC20047) and written informed consent was received from all participants. All participants completed a self-report survey and participated in a face-to-face interview 3–4 weeks post-TC admission (to allow for stabilisation and adjustment). Baseline drug/alcohol use was reported for the 3-month period immediately prior to entering the TC (excluding any incarceration/detoxification period).

Sociodemographic variables and factors

But even for those who’ve successfully quit, there’s always a risk of the addiction returning, which is called relapse. Data support the utility of our revised model—e.g., socially anxious persons report using substances to manage subjective anxiety, despite evidence that some substances may not have a direct effect on physiological responding. Other factors with promise include social influence, cognitive processes (e.g., post-event processing), and avoidance. Data highlight the importance of context as socially anxious persons use some substances more in some high-risk situations, despite lack of relation between social anxiety and use generally. For alcohol consumption, significant LOS group differences were found for number of drinking days at 3 months and 9 months.

3. Secondary Outcomes: Biopsychosocial Variables at 3 Months and 9 Months Follow-Up

Primary features of the model are shown in boldface; variables exemplifying heroin-assisted treatment are shown in italics. Scientists don’t yet understand why some people become addicted while others don’t. Addiction tends to run in families, and certain types of genes have been linked to different forms of addiction.

What Exactly Is the Biopsychosocial Model of Addiction?

  • I outline in this section two general ways in which post-dualist, cross-disciplinary theories have been developed over recent decades, critical to formulating a biopsychological model.
  • Additionally, many neurotransmitters are involved in the experience of reward (dopamine, opioids, GABA, serotonin, endocannabinoids, and glutamate; Blum et al., 2020).
  • Health factors included overall perceived health, having access to private health insurance, and mental health indicators.
  • Some lived in apartments provided by social services, while others owned their houses.

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